Quartz is a chemical compound consisting of one part silicon and two parts oxygen. It is silicon dioxide (SiO2). Quartz is the most abundant and widely distributed mineral found at Earth's surface. It is present and plentiful in all parts of the world. It forms at all temperatures. It is abundant in igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks. It is highly resistant to both mechanical and chemical weathering. This durability makes it the dominant mineral of mountaintops and the primary constituent of beach, river and desert sand. Quartz is ubiquitous, plentiful and durable. Minable deposits are found throughout the world.
Quartz sand is used in the production of container glass, flat plate glass, specialty glass and fiberglass. Quartz sands and finely ground silica sand are used for sand blasting, scouring cleansers, grinding media, and grit for sanding and sawing. Quartz sand is used as filler in the manufacture of rubber, paint and putty.
Quartz is very resistant to both chemicals and heat. It is therefore often used as foundry sand. With a melting temperature higher than most metals it can be used for the molds and cores of common foundry work. Refractory brick are often made of quartz sand because of its high heat resistance. Quartz sand is also used as a flux in the smelting of metals. It is also used in Petroleum Industry. Electronics grade crystals can be used in filters, frequency controls, timers, electronic circuits that become important components in cell phones, watches, clocks, games, television receivers, computers, navigational instruments and other products.